意义丛林·外文资料
意义丛林·外文资料
思是命运的一种回响,从这里我们走向对命运的理解。


一些口语

2007-8-29 星期三(Wednesday) 晴
Do you have any pet peeve?
你有什么样的怪毛病吗?

Don't you think he is annoying?
你不觉得他很烦吗?

I don't have skeleton in my closet.
我没有什么不可告人的秘密。

Are you sure you are going to set us up?
你确定你要帮我们制造机会吗?

Just right place, right time.
只不过是天时地利而已。

Same here.
我也是。 me too. So do I.......
# posted by daiwangwang @ 2007-08-29 15:00 评论(0)


To be young, gifted and vague

2007-4-26 星期四(Thursday) 晴

By Clive Crook

Published: April 25 2007 17:33 | Last updated: April 25 2007 17:33

Barack Obama still has a good chance of not being elected president – so Hillary Clinton must be telling herself. His campaign is off to a stunning start, the press adores the man and the mere possibility of President Obama has made this one of the most exciting elections in living memory. The possibility of a woman president ought to be electrifying, but is tiring by comparison.
......
# posted by daiwangwang @ 2007-04-26 12:28 评论(0)


AS AMERICA LOOKS THE OTHER WAY, CHINA

2007-2-27 星期二(Tuesday) 晴
An “enemy of China” is a disconcerting experience. About 10 years ago I inadvertently slipped into this role, when I wrote a cover story for The Economist headlined: “Containing China”.

The Chinese were irked by this use of “cold war vocabulary”. On a trip to Beijing at the time, I struggled to justify my unhelpful attitude – a task that was made more difficult by the fact that many of the officials I met seemed unable to grasp the distinction between the words “contain” and “destroy”. I remember struggling to illustrate the difference at an official banquet, with the aid of a glass of water. The glass, I pointed out, contained the liquid – but it did not attack it. My audience looked sceptical.

Ten years later, I have returned to Beijing – having cleverly assumed a new identity as a columnist for the Financial Times. The fuss seems to have died down. In the intervening years, the Chinese economy has probably doubled in size and the Beijing skyline has been transformed beyond recognition.

But, strangely enough, the big strategic questions about China's emergence as a great power remain pretty much the same. Will China have a “peaceful rise”, as its officials insist? Or will growing Chinese power and ambition one day bring the country into conflict with the US or Japan? How serious is China's threat to use force to prevent Taiwanese independence? And how long can the Communist party rule?

The big questions remain open. But that is not to say that nothing has changed. The past decade has seen at least three major developments that demonstrate China's burgeoning global power. The first is the way that China is displacing Japan as the diplomatic and economic focus of Asia. The second is the growing power of the Chinese military. The third is the fact that China is now developing global strategic interests

China's global reach has just been graphically demonstrated by an eight-nation tour of Africa by Hu Jintao, China's president. The trip signalled his determination to secure the mineral and energy resources his country needs. China also recently demonstrated its growing military sophistication by shooting down one of its own space satellites. China's new clout within Asia was demonstrated last year, when Japan discovered that only one Asian country, tiny Singapore, was willing to come out in strong support of Japan's bid for permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council. The rest stayed silent, in deference to China's hostility to Japan.

All of these developments are open to both benign and malign interpretations. China's missile test could simply be seen as the kind of thing that countries do, as they upgrade their military capabilities. More generally, China's military build-up could be nothing more than a reflection of the country's growing wealth.

But there is also a much darker way of looking at the missile test. It might be a deliberate signal to the US that – in any future conflict over Taiwan – China could take out the satellite intelligence that is crucial to the US military.

America would have to fight blind. Some military analysts believe that China's military build-up – which includes a huge increase in ballistic missiles capable of hitting Taiwan – has already tipped the odds towards China in any future conflict across the Taiwan Straits.

China's actions in Africa are similarly ambiguous. The positive side is that the Chinese are bringing trade and investment to the world's poorest continent. The negative side is that Beijing is happy to do business with some of Africa's nastiest governments, including Sudan. It has done almost nothing to pressure Khartoum over Darfur – and yet, China is the largest arms supplier to the Sudanese government and its biggest overseas oil project is in Sudan.

China's growing clout within Asia is also open to both an optimistic and a pessimistic interpretation. Japan has been openly worried since the anti-Japanese riots in China in 2005. But most other Asian countries seem reasonably relaxed. The rapid growth of China's economy is seen as a big opportunity and Beijing has taken pains to try to negotiate solutions to its various border disputes – although as one senior Vietnamese politician puts it: “With China as a neighbour, you always need to sleep with one eye open.” The big exception to this rule is Taiwan. Chinese rhetoric on this issue remains startlingly blunt. The group of Americans and Europeans with whom I visited Beijing last week were informed by a senior Chinese official – “In a sentence: Taiwan independence means war.” Two years ago a Chinese general spoke openly to foreign journalists about using nuclear weapons on “hundreds” of US cities in the event of conflict. This sounds terrifying. But the Chinese have been rattling sabres over Taiwan for decades. If anything, some of the heat has gone out of the issue recently. President George W. Bush has openly discouraged the Taiwanese from pursuing formal independence; and President Hu has sounded less impatient about taking over Taiwan than previous Chinese leaders.

Americans still find it hard to be relaxed about the rise of China – and understandably so. The rise of a new world power has often led to war in centuries past. China is an authoritarian government that can sound very bellicose. But the Chinese challenge remains a long-term one.

In the meantime, the US has more pressing issues to worry about. It was noticeable in Beijing last week that the Americans in my group – think-tankers from the Brookings Institution and former government officials – found it hard to stay focused exclusively on China. The conversations on the bus or in the bar fairly swiftly turned to Iraq – with Iran and the US presidential election as sub-themes.

When President Bush came to power, he made China policy a top priority. But the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks changed all that. America's pre-occupation with the Middle East is a huge opportunity for Beijing. It can pursue its military build-up and extend its diplomatic reach without encountering any real opposition. China is already competing hard with the US across a range of fronts – from the pursuit of energy resources to the establishment of diplomatic networks. If and when the US finally lifts its gaze from the Middle East, it will find itself facing a much better placed and more formidable China.

# posted by daiwangwang @ 2007-02-27 13:07 评论(0)


加州旅馆

2007-2-14 星期三(Wednesday) 晴
on a dark desert highway,行驶在昏黑的荒漠公路上,
cool wind in my hair.凉风吹过我的头发。
warm smell of colitas,温馨的大麻香,
rising up through the air.弥漫在空气中。
up ahead in the distance,抬头遥望远方,
i saw a shimmering light.我看到微弱的灯光。
my head grew heavy my sight grew dim.我的头越来越沉,视线也变得模糊。
i had to stop for the night.我不得不停下来过夜。
there she stood in the door way;她站在门口那儿招呼我
i heard the mission bell.我听到远处教堂的钟声。
and i was thinking to myself,我在心里对自己说
"this could b heaven or this could b hell".这里可能是天堂也可能是地狱。
then she lit up a candle,然后她点燃了蜡烛,
and she showed me the way.给我引路。
there were voices down the corridor.沿着走廊传来阵阵说话声。
i thought i heard them say...我想我听到他们在说……
welcome to the hotel california!欢迎来到加州旅馆!
such a lovely place!如此美丽的地方!
such a lovely face!多么可爱的的面容!!
plenty of room at the hotel california!加州旅馆有充足的房间!
any time of year,u can find it here!一年的任何时候,你都能在这找到房间。
her mind is tiffany-twisted,她的心为珠宝所扭曲,
she got the mercedes bends.她拥有豪华奔驰车。
she got a lot of pretty,pretty boys.她有许多漂亮的小伙子。
that she calls friends.她称之为朋友。
how they dance in the courtyard,他们在庭院里翩翩起舞,
sweet summer sweat.夏日的香汗淋漓。
some dance to remember!有些舞是为了回忆!
some dance to forget!而有些舞是为了忘却!
so i called up the captain,于是我叫来领班,
"please bring me my wine."请给我来些酒。
he said"we haven't had that spirit here,他说我们这不供应列酒
since nineteen sixty nine."从1969年起。
and still those voices are calling from far away.远处仍然传来他们的话语。
wake u up in the middle of the night.在半夜把你吵醒。
just to hear them say...只听到他们在说……
welcome to the hotel california!欢迎到加州旅馆来!
such a lovely place!如此美丽的地方!
such a lovely face!多么可爱的的面容!
they livin' it up at the hotel california.他们在加州旅馆尽情狂欢。
what a nice surprise,好得令人吃惊,
bring your alibis.使你有来到这的借口。
mirrors on the ceiling,天花板上镶嵌着的镜子,
the pink champagne on ice.冰镇着的粉色香槟
and she said"we are all just prisoners here-她说我们都是这的囚徒
-of our own device".但是是我们自愿的。
and in the master's chambers.在主人的卧房里。
they gathered for the feast.他们为宴会聚在一起。
they stabbed it with their steely knives.他们彼此间用钢刀相互砍杀。
but they just can't kill the beast.但他们甚至不能杀死野兽!
last thing i remember,我所记得的最后一件事
i was running for the door.是我跑向门口。
i had to find the passage back,我必须找到来时的路,
to the place i was before.回到我过去的地方。
"relax",said the night man,守夜人说放宽心,
"we are programmed to receive.我们只是照常接待
you can checkout any time you like.你想什么时候结帐都可以。
but you can never leave!"但你永远无法离去!



意译:

月黑大漠路迢迢,风高凛冽客思归,
人倦眼乏昏欲睡,闻香忽见灯火碎,
但见有女娉婷立,耳畔钟声如乐起,
天堂地狱两相忘,浑然不似在人间,
秉烛引路过画廊,人声嘈杂迎客至:
加州客栈诚待客,虚位以侯游子回,
衣香鬓影佳人意,玉郎终始为君来,
放歌纵舞前廊院,香汗淋漓未尽欢:
纵使笙歌能醉月,情未忘我怎忘情?
便向校官索美酒,经年未备意阑珊,
午夜梦回旧馆舍,声声呼唤充耳闻
倦鸟羁留深林久,此间乐哉不思归。
宝镜倒映烛影晃,寒冰装点酒色红,
宾客齐至成盛筵,佳人美酒俱添光,
轻启朱唇惊四座,投杯停箸不能食:
钢刀银叉手中持,心魔犹在不能消
自我羁押成囚徒,吾辈颓然尚不知。
闻言仓皇寻旧路,四顾茫茫无着处,
明朝更向何处去?更者悠然言少歇:
纵然我辈长别离,此生有命不能弃,
前路漫漫归旧旅,生此回环无尽时。
# posted by daiwangwang @ 2007-02-14 13:38 评论(0)


1205

2006-12-5 星期二(Tuesday) 晴
改完一篇虽然有点内容但官话不少的稿子,已近凌晨两点。北京没有想象的冷。K发过来黎阳评论《大国崛起》的文章,作者把它跟《河殇》做了对比。在下不敏得很,以前居然没有想到这一层。这些对比,让人感觉到这还是个罗织罪名的时代。
正巧今天在飞机上,发晕的间歇,看了一点林达歌颂“美帝国主义”的《历史深处的忧虑》,讲美国对个人自由的保护,美国的三权分立,要是个个作者都似黎某人那样,这本书也能解释出足以致人于死地的罪名来。
真是无以名之,唯有无耻二字!
# posted by daiwangwang @ 2006-12-05 01:53 评论(0)


硕士论文提纲之二

2004-10-26 星期二(Tuesday) 晴

题目:
《知觉中的物、我、他人呈现问题》

总体思路阐述:

通过描述在知觉—存在场中的知觉发生,来阐明知觉过程中物、我与他人的产生,说明物我与他人的共根共存,并尝试从这种共根共存中找出“则”,从知觉(智)的角度,与儒家的“仁民爱物”做融通的尝试。

“我”是一个不断丰富变更着的存在-知觉场,“物”是此场中呈现出来的,被把握的“物”,物于此存在-知觉场的关系(如儒家的爱物,与万物同体,身外无物等命题。),“他人”也是一个存在-知觉场,相互参与,构成,并构成相处的“则”(如儒家的夫妇父子兄弟朋友君臣形式,或希腊传统下的公民形式。)本文的主要目的,便是要尝试从存在-知觉的角度入手,寻找人与物,人与他人之间的“则”,这个“则”,是“天生蒸民,有物有则”之“则”。

 从知(智)的角度切入仁道(天道)。知的发生,世界与“我”、“他人”的同根同源,德性的产生,这种进入方式已经是在希腊传统的分析精神下进行,这种分析地进入方式,是否还能保持孔子之仁道的浑无缝隙,是一个不确定的问题。从表面上看来,可以套用冯达文的句式:这是一种“主智的成德学”的尝试。

论文思路一:把本文作为一篇博士论文来对待,几个主要命题大致平均地(知觉场、现象场问题;物、我、他人的呈现问题;德性问题)讲到。优点在于:能呈现出一个整体思路,使德性问题的意义在一个完整的分析背景中进行。缺点在于:由于时间不够,材料阅读不充分,思考可能无法深透,细致。整体思路中的部分关节点可能有失严谨。

论文思路二:以博士论文的思路为整体方向,集中于一点,专门论述知觉过程中物、我、他人呈现过程中的德性问题。以此为立足点,来批评地解读《知觉现象学》一书。

共通点:必须关注德性问题,仁的问题,以求在现象学的基础上,重新理解儒家的仁道与天道。

基本提纲:

A 知觉的描绘
1,知觉场,现象场,身体场(作为一个侧面的性别问题)
2,知觉间分析,联觉现象,知觉作为一个存在着的开放场(时间问题,历史问题)

B 人的产生
1,自我的产生 执着的产生
2,自我与他人 (父子,母子,兄弟姐妹,亲属,朋友,陌生人。生存类型,文化类型问题。朱刚曾讨论过的作为具体类型生活世界的“生活世界本身”的问题。)

C 物的产生
1,自然世界 (物是内在地被存在-知觉场所把握的,是一种重建的体验。或者说,体验已经是一种重建。存在-知觉场有其接受的结构,且在不断变更之中。现象学的“奠基”思路。一个婴儿的目光与一个老人的目光所看到的世界的区别。)
2,文化世界

D 发生过程的整体描述
1,肉身化的时间性分析
2,自由问题

E 与儒家的天人合一,良知与知觉的比较(象山,阳明,牟宗三)

# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-10-26 12:32 评论(0)


硕士论文提纲

2004-9-19 星期日(Sunday) 晴
题目:
《知觉中的物我呈现问题》

主要思路:

通过描述知觉的发生,来阐明知觉过程中物与我的产生,说明物我一体,从而与中国道家乃至儒家的天人合一观打通

基本线索:

A 知觉的描绘
1,知觉场,现象场,身体场(作为一个侧面的性别问题)
2,知觉间分析,联觉现象,知觉作为一个存在着的开放场(时间问题,历史问题)

B 人的产生
1,自我的产生 执着的产生
2,自我与他人

C 物的产生
1,自然世界
2,文化世界

D 发生过程的整体描述
1,肉身化的时间性分析
2,自由问题

E 与道家的天人合一,物我不二的比较;
 与儒家的天人合一,良知与知觉的比较(象山,阳明,牟宗三)

# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-19 14:59 评论(0)


190-199页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
P 190 191 192
The categorical activity, before being a thought or a form of knowledge, is a certain manner of relating oneself to the world, and, correspondingly, a style or shape of experience.
从颜色遗忘来研究意义的产生过程。病人在颜色领域的意义世界建立不起来,或者与正常人不同。他们对世界的颜色体验是不一样的,或者说,是不完整的。 More comprehensive units of meaning can no longer be built up within the perceived world. Each sense impression is provided with a “meaning-vector”, but these vectors have no common direction, for, being no longer directed towards main determinate centres, they diverge much more than in the normal person. Such is the disturbance of ‘thought’ discoverable at the root of amnesia; it can be seen that it concerns not so much the judgement as the setting of experience in which the judgement has its source, not so much spontaneity as the footing which spontaneity has in the perceptible world, and our ability to discern in it any intention whatsoever. In Kantian terms: it affects not so much the understanding as the productive imagination. The categorical act is therefore not an ultimate fact, it builds itself up within a certain ‘attitude’ (Einstellung) 语言也是在某种态度基本上形成。所以,语言奠基于思想,是不对的。

P193
 词语丢掉了它的意义,外表也发生变化,变得空洞。词语与它的活生生的关系不是一种外部的联合关系,意义居住在词语中。语言“不是智力过程的外部伴随物。”(但是,言不及义 又如何解释?无语言的思考是否可能?对世界的体验是否一定要有语言?意义已经要居住在语言中?)
The meaning of the gesture is not contained in it like some physical or physiological phenomenon. The meaning of the word is not contained in the word as a sound.
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 P194
言语动作必须在一个说话者之间共同的世界里才能进行,就像其他动作必须在一个已感知的共同世界里才能被理解,在此世界里每个动作才能展开和发展其意义。但真正的speech给出新的意义,新的动作将首创地把一种人的意义给予对象。Moreover significances now acquired must necessarily have been new once. We must therefore recognize as an ultimate fact this open and indefinite power of giving significance—that is, both of apprehending and conveying a meaning—by which man transcends himself towards a new form of behaviour, or towards other people, or towards his own thoughts, through his body and his speech.
原初的意义,通过身体和语言在存在中产生,并在此基础上人们进行日常的交流,思考和行动。最重要的是弄清楚这个原初意义的发生过程。同样重要的是,弄清楚日常生活中的意义机制。
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P195 196
If we are to summarize these two sets of observations, we shall have to say that any linguistic operation presupposes the apprehension of a significance, but that the significance in both cases is, as it were, specialized: there are different layers of significance, from the ideas will never be simultaneously understood unless we cease to vacillate between the notions of ‘motility’ and ‘intelligence’, and unless we discover a third notion which enables us to integrate them, a function which shall be the same at all levels, which shall be equally at work in the hidden preliminaries to speech and in articulatory phenomena, which shall support the whole edifice of language, and which nevertheless shall be stabilized in relatively autonomous processes.
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与Schneider完全执定在事实而不向可能性开放的语言状况相反,我们看到,the essence of normal language: the intention to speak can reside only in an open experience. It makes its appearance like the boiling point of liquid, when, in the density of being, volumes of empty space are built up and move outwards.
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P197
批评一种语言观念。
The analysis of speech and expression brings home to us the enigmatic nature of our own body even more effectively than did our remarks on bodily space and unity. It is not a collection of particles, each one remaining in itself, nor yet a net work of processes defined once and for all—it is not where it is, nor what it is—since we see it secreting in itself a ‘significance’ which comes to it from nowhere, projecting that significance upon its material surrounding, and communicating it to other embodied subjects…... It is the body which point out, and which speaks; so much we have learnt in this chapter.
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P198 199
The experience of our own body, on the other hand, reveals to us an ambiguous mode of existing. If I try to think of it as a cluster of third person processes—‘sight’, ’motility’, ‘sexuality’—I observe that these ‘functions’ cannot be interrelated, and related to the external world, by causal connections, they are all obscurely drawn together and mutually implied in a unique drama. Therefore the body is not an object. For the same reason, my awareness of it is not a thought, that is to say, I cannot take it to pieces and reform it to make a clear idea. Its unity is always implicit and vague. It is always something other than what it is, always sexuality and at the same time freedom, rooted in nature at the very moment when it is transformed by cultural influences, never hermetically sealed and never left behind. Whether it is a question of another’s body or my own, I have no means of knowing the human body other than that of living it, which means taking up on my own account the drama which is being played out in it, and losing myself in it. I am my body, at least wholly to the extent that I possess experience, and yet at the same time my body is as it were a ‘natural’ subject, a provisional sketch of my total being. Thus experience of one’s own body runs counter to the reflective procedure which detaches subject and object from each other, and which gives us only the thought about the body, or the body as an idea, and not the experience of the body or the body in reality.
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# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:53 评论(0)


187--190

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
P187
可支配的意义是如何构成的?有人说,手势和肢体动作是自然符号,语言是约定符号。那么,需要把约定符号的产生放回沟通流过程中去。
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一种语言里元音占主导地位,另一种语言里辅音占主导地位,结构和句法系统,都不代表为了表示同一种思想的各种随意约定,而是表示人类团体歌颂世界——归根结底——体验世界的各种方式。由此可以得出,一种语言的完整意义不可能用另一种语言来表达。
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P188
一种语言的整个历史就包含在语言中。
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The meaning of a sentence appears intelligible throughout, detachable from the sentence and finitely self-subsistent in an intelligible world, because we presuppose as given all those exchanges, owed to the history of the language, which contribute to determining its sense.
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The clearness of language stands out from an obscure background, and if we carry our research far enough we shall eventually find that language is equally uncommunicative of anything other than itself, that its meaning is inseparable from it. We need, then, to seek the first attempts at language in the emotional gesticulation whereby man superimposes on the given word according to man. 语言与情绪的关系。生存本身就是带有情绪的,情绪并不是我们身体上的偶然附带。语言与意义不可分离。与生存交织在一起。与身体交织在一起。身体是生存的载体和具体发源出,它既规定了生存的深度也规定了生存的广度——当然,与语言一同起作用。
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P 189
It is not enough for two conscious subjects to have the same organs and nervous system for the same emotions to produce in both the same sighs. What is important is how they use their bodies, the simultaneous patterning of body and world in emotion. 情绪如此根本(但这里只有情绪起作用吗?)。身体和世界的相生(世界作为春夏秋冬,作为食物生长处和藏身处,作为黑夜和白天,作为高山和低谷,都是与身体相生才能显现出来。世界乃是一个意义的世界,身体和世界配合紧密,丝丝入扣,正是一阴一阳相生之道。情绪在其中起的作用有多大?对情绪本身的控制和理解又如何?圣人以理顺情和原本的情绪其关系何在?),正是在情绪中发生的。这种相生,决定着世界和身体两相呈现的面目。也就是说,从根本上决定着东方和西方,各个种族、团体对世界和自己的理解,各自的生存世界,各自的历史走向,文明特质和趋势,乃至现代世界的文明格局。但这些推论都需要更详细的说明和论证。(自然环境——个人——团体——文明——国家——文明)
The use a man is to make of his body is transcendent in relation to that body as a mere biological entity. It is no more natural, and no less conventional, to shout in anger or to kiss in love than to all a table ‘a table’. Feelings and passional conduct are invented like words. Even those which, like paternity, seem to be part and parcel of the human make-up are in reality institutions. 一切皆是化生出来,并没有什么是自然的。这个观点和佛教的万物无自性、皆由因缘化合而生的思想颇相通。但化生出来的并不等于能将其看成空。有无相即的道理,似乎是西方思想家不能冲破的最后一步。但能从身体角度将世界与事物讲到这个程度,M•P真是很厉害的思想家。
Everything is both manufactured and natural in man, as it were, in the sense that there is not a word, not a form of behaviour which does not owe something to purely biological being—and which at the same time does not elude the simplicity of animal life, and cause forms of vital behaviour to deviate from their pre-ordained direction, through a sort of leakage and through a genius for ambiguity which might serve to define man. Already the mere presence of a living being transforms the physical world, bringing to view here ‘food’, there a ‘hiding place’, and giving to ‘stimuli’ a sense which they have not hitherto possessed. A fortiori does this apply to the presence of a man in the animal world. Behaviour creates meanings which are transcendent in relation to the anatomical apparatus, and yet immanent to the behaviour as such, since it communicates itself and is understood. It is impossible to draw up an inventory of this irrational power which creates meanings and conveys them. Speech is merely one particular case of it.
本段说明意义世界的产生和构成要从能在之在上来理解。行为创造出意义世界。行为是身体的行为。身体本身就是意义的源泉,是意义得以被创造出来的原因。我们追问人生的意义,这种追问必须建立在身体创造出来的意义世界才是可能的。对人生意义的解答,也需要回溯到意义本身的意义,意义是什么意思,它的源泉在哪里,为什么会有这样的问题等等。对意义世界的探究,关系到最终的解脱。最后的这点认定,决定一个人要么认同佛,要么认同道,要么认同儒,要么只是做一个无认同的中立学者。但这个认定,也跟对意义世界的探究深度有关。真空与妙有,真是神奇莫测而又朴实不过。
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# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:52 评论(0)


180--186页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
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第12章 作为语言和表达的身体
(与《哲学研究》相互参照理解)
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P180
语言和思想的关系问题:
言语是最基本的思想,日常之思,乃是第二层面的思想。最原本的关系是“语言说人”,而不是人说语言。M•Ponty要做的,是将这个认识落实到身体上。
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演说者的例子:演讲者并不预先打好草稿,他并不是在组织词语。并没有一种词语表象。语言跟身体一样,并不需要知道空间然后运动自己的肢体。语言就是我们的存在本身。但这里他没有能够区分出原本的语言和日常语言。日常语言之所以就是我们的身体本身,乃是因为它建立在原本语言的基础上。原本语言就是生存。日常语言是生存的复杂化。所以,词语不是表象,它要原本得多。活动场就是意义场,它的存在决定着我的身体,我的语言,我的演讲。I reach back for the word as my hand reaches towards the part of my body which being pricked, the word has a certain location in my linguistic world, and is part of my equipment.
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P181 182
记忆不是过去的一种构成意识,而是奠基于现在的过去的时间的重新开启。And if the body, as our permanent means of ‘taking up attitudes’ and thus constructing pseudo-presents, is the medium of our communication with time ad well as with space. …..the body is a power of natural expression.意义在词语中,词语并不是意义的外衣。词语本身就是意义。词语的意义在于它的用法,而它的用法来源于我们的身体[身—心]存在。
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 Words cannot be ‘strongholds of thought ’, nor can thought seek expression, unless words are in themselves a comprehensible text, and unless speech possesses a power of significance entirely its own. 言语自身的意义,这是什么意思呢? The word and speech must somehow cease to be a way of designation things or thoughts, and become the presence of that thought in the phenomenal world, and, moreover, not its clothing but its token or its body.
 Beneath the conceptual meaning of the words , an existential meaning which is not only rendered by them, but which inhabits them, and is inseparable them.
艺术作品中的词语和表达,不是作为记忆留给我们,使意义作为一个物体在作品的核心存在,使意义在词语的结构中永存。使意义作为一种新的感官置于作家或读者中,并向我们的体验开辟一个新的维度,新的领域。用音乐做说明。
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P183
The meaning swallows up the signs.言语是一种真正的动作,它含有自己的意义,就像动作含有自己的意义。这就是沟通成为可能的原因。为了我能理解他人的言语,他人的词汇和语法显然应该是我“已经知道的”。但这并不意味着言语的作用是在我身上引起与言语联系在一起的“表象”。我首先不是与表象或一种思想建立联系,而是与会说话的主体,与某种存在方式,与会说话的主体所指向的“世界”建立联系。
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之所以他人的词汇和语法是我已经知道的,是因为我的世界和他人的世界本来就相济相生,互通声气。语言就是世界的一种意义形式,甚至就是某种程度上的世界本身。他人的语言与从我们共在的世界中而来,根植于我们的世界。
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Just as the sense-giving intention which has set in motion the other person’s speech is not an explicit thought, but a certain lack which is asking to be made good, so my taking up of this intention is not a process of thinking on my part, but a synchronizing change of my own existence, a transformation of my being.(?)
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P184
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We live in a world where speech is an institution. For all these many commonplace utterances, we possess within ourselves ready-made meanings. They arouse in us only second order thoughts; these in turn are translated into other words which demand from us no real effort of expression and will demand from our hearers no effort of comprehension. Thus language and the understanding of language apparently raise no problems. The linguistic and inter-subjective world no longer surprises us, we no longer distinguish it from the world itself, and it is within a world already spoken and speaking that we think. We become unaware of the contingent element in expression and communication, whether it be in the child learning to speak, or in the writer saying and thinking something for the first time, in short, in all who transform a certain kind of silence into speech. It is, however, quite clear that constituted speech, as it operates in daily life, assumes that the decisive step of expression has been taken. Our view of man will remain superficial so long as we fail to go back to that origin, so long as we fail to find, beneath the chatter of words, the primordial silence, and as long as we do not describe the action which breaks this silence. The spoken word is a gesture, and its meaning, a world.
日常世界里,语言已经具备成型的意义。我们再也看不到对孩子来说的世界,永远充满新鲜,意义不断涌现。现成化的世界使成年人失去了对世界的新鲜感,而追逐于名利钱财这些已经固定化的东西。对文化世界,甚至对日常世界而言,也不是没有新的东西。创新的过程就是意义诞生的过程。
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P185 186
理解是如何发生的?
The sense of the gestures is not given, but understood, that is, recaptures by an act on the spectator’s part.困难在于不把这个理解过程跟认识过程混淆起来。动作的沟通或理解通过我的意向与他者的行为之间的相互关系而进行,我的动作与意向可从他的动作与意向中辨别出来。就像他人的意向居住在我身体之内、我的意向居住在他的身体内一样。我目击的动作勾画出一个意向目标。当我的身体能力可以对准该目标并与该目标交迭重合时,该目标就真正的呈现给我并完全被理解。动作如问题出现在我面前,它向我指出世界的某些可感知的节点,要求我与这些感性节点的共存。当我的行动与这些要求相同时,沟通得以实现。
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Like the body image, the fireplace is a system of equivalents not founded on the recognition of some law, but on the experience of a bodily presence. I become involved in things with my body, they co-exist with me as an incarnate subject, and this life among things has nothing in common with the elaboration of scientifically conceived objects.
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意识间的沟通不是建立在体验的共同意义的基础上,而是沟通产生了共同意义。
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我通过我的身体理解他人,就像我通过我的身体感知“物体”。以这种方式“理解的”动作的意义不是在动作后面,它与动作描述的和我接受的世界结构融合在一起。意义在动作本身中展开,正如在知觉体验中,壁炉的意义不在感性景象之外,不在我的目光和我的运动在世界中发现的壁炉本身之外。(知觉与动作的关系问题,知觉只有在生存中才有意义。壁炉只有在生活中才能呈现它的意义,获得它的存在。)
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The linguistic gesture, like all the rest, delineates its own meaning……one is forced to accepted it if one wished to understand the origin of language.从语言的根源来看,这说的正是在与思的同一性。能在在起来的过程就是意义得以产生,世界逐渐建立的过程。语言是这一过程的丰富、伴随和参与。动作本身就是一种语言,语言是延伸了的动作。在语言和动作之间划一条截然分开的线是错误的。我既用招手表示“你来这里”,也用这四个汉字表达同样的意思。愤怒的表达也是如此。不能说语言是肢体动作的意义和替代,也不能说语言是既有意义的象征和传达。语言本身就是意义,因为它同样原本地参与生存,而不是生存的外壳或影子。(与陈嘉应《思 远 道》连起来读,考虑语言产生的过程,语言的意义问题。语言与生存的关系问题。)
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可支配的意义,即以前的表达行为,在会说话的主体中间建立了一个共同世界,而当前的和新出现的言语就和这个共同世界有关联,就像动作和感性世界有关联。言语的意义不是别的,就是言语支配这个语言世界的方式[语言的意义在于它的使用]或在获得的意义这个范围内变化的方式。
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# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:51 评论(0)


140-163页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
P140 141
身体的运动体验不是知识的一个特例,它提供了一条进入世界和物体的道路。一种原始的,基本的认识。身体有它的世界,或者理解它的世界,不用通过我的象征功能或对象化功能。接下来用病人直接面对医生模仿无能的例子阐述身体自身对他人动作的理解与通过语言表达(formulation)来理解的区别。病人的问题在于丧失了身体这种原本的对应,而是得通过一种绝对的位置来进行客观模仿。因为这已经不是一种有自身要求情景的具体行为,而是一种抽象行为。模仿的例子说明了人的共在。存在的模仿乃是一种存在过程的呼应。我的身体不仅仅是当前的位置系统,它还是在世的身体,有无限的位置可能性。它自身是一个开放的系统。指导语的给予了身体一种运动意义,一个记号,一个路标,使身体在这无限的系统中找到自己的方向。对于病人来说,身体的这种随时向另一个系统开放的存在能力被破坏了。
要求模仿的空间并不是一种与具体空间相对的建立在思考之上的客观空间,表象空间的绝对位置。而是一种建立在我身体的结构之上的绝对相关性。实际上,这已经是在一种很后面的层次上来讲。我们应该突入更基本的层面:身体的结构就包含了这种空间的响应,就是这种共在的统一。运动是所有意义的意义产生的最初领域。
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P156
Somewhere between automatic response and representation, a vital zone in which the sexual possibilities of the patient are elaborated, in the same way, as we saw above, as are his motor, perceptual and even intellectual possibilities.
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知觉丧失了性爱结构。病人的知觉不再具备性的意义。
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P157
Erotic perception is not a cogitation which aims at the cogitatum; through one body it aims at another body, and takes place in the world, not in a consciousness.
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 性的意义首先不是进入智力或知识层面。它首先是为身体存在。身心合一,心并不考虑单独的身体。身体的“性爱理解力。”
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We discover both that sexual life is one more form of original intentionality, and also bring to view the vital origins of perception, motility and representation by basing all these ‘progress’ on an ‘intentional arc’ which gives way in the patient, and which, in the normal subject, endows experience with its degree of vitality and fruitfulness.
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P158-159
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P160 161 The case of the girl whose mother has forbidden her to see again the young man with whom she is in love. In the subject’s childhood, fear was translated by loss of speech because the imminence of death violently interrupted co-existence, and throw her back upon her own personal fate.
Loses her appetite and finally the use of speech. This is because of all bodily functions speech is the most intimately linked with communal existence, or, as we shall put it, with co-existence.
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The future of the subject has been shut off by the forbidden of the mother.
症状 ——症状的性的意义——更一般的,自我与他人,过去与将来——生存的基本维度。也即是,分析者从失音症,通过她的性的,身体的含义,进入了自我与他人,过去与将来的生存分析。即,共存的模式问题,男和女的问题,过去和将来的问题,时间性问题。但是,the sign here does not only convey its significance, it is filled with it; it is , in a way, what it signifies, as a portrait is the quasipresence of the absent Peter.(意义与象征,意义与具体的问题。症状不仅仅是表示一种意义,它就是生存本身。失音不仅仅是象征她对未来被关闭的不满,而是就是这不满本身。她不能吞咽,不仅仅代表她拒绝那个命令,仿佛她仅仅是在故意这么做以求得其母亲的屈服一样,不,她直接就是对该命令的反应,像中国的小说里写的一样,小姐们会因为情郎的不被家庭接受而逐渐消瘦以至于最后死去,除非反对的人们改变自己对他们的关系的态度。这里与艺术的区别在于:表现爱尔兰人民苦难史的大河之舞,其每一个场景都是一段历史,虽然在台上只有几个演员,十来分钟,但却代表着所有的爱尔兰人民,几百年的时间阶段,整个舞剧代表了整个历史,每一个阶段都在历史整体中获得完整的意义,而且与这个历史整体的目前开放状态联系起来,或者说,整个舞剧所代表的“整个历史”也只不过是“现在的过去”,是实际生活的一个象征性表达,一切艺术都是如此,它总是企图表现整个历史,但总只能是实际生活的一个象征——要么关于过去,要么关于未来,要么对当前的反思或嘲讽。但观众并不如此认为,距离不被发现,就好像道不被发现,能被看到的只是具体的万物一样。一切艺术都有一个实际的现在的生活作为背景。哲学家指导工人们农民们政治家们该怎么生活,但哲学家自己并不像他们的被指导者那样生活,他们只是阅读,思考与写作。他们所说的和他们的生活有读者和他们自己全都忽略掉的距离。但是,在失音症患者这里,不存在这种距离。她直接以失音的方式来生活。失音是她的生存环节,而不是她生存环节的一个象征,失音本身就是意义本身,而不是意义的表现。To have lost one’s voice is not to keep silence: one keeps silence only when one can speak.)
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The lost memory is not accidentally lost, it is lost rather in so far as it belongs to an area of my life which I reject, in so far as it has a certain significance and, like all significances, this one exists only for someone.
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P162
知道与不知道的模糊性。它不对我呈现,其意义便不在存在。要区分心理学的虚伪和形而上的虚伪。The latter is self-deceiving throng the medium of generality, thus leading finally to a state or a situation which is not an inevitability, but which is not posited or voluntary. 置身于知道和不知道,有意识的肯定与否定之外。What collapses is the whole field of possibilities. I cut myself off even from that mode of communication and significance which silence provides.
P163
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# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:50 评论(0)


87-90页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
P87
If man is not to be embedded in the matrix of that syncretic setting in which animal leas their lives in a sort of er-stase, if he is to be aware of a world as the common reason for all settings and the threatre of all patterns of behaviour, then between himself and what elicits his action a distance must be set……
存在之人必须与他的世界保持一定距离,如此才能获得自由选择的实际空间。但是,“by becoming involved in the world through stable organs and pre-established circuits that man can acquire the mental and practical space which will theoretically free him from his environment and allow him to see it.”吗?况且,这也正是客观化对象化的源头。因为对象要作为物来被把握和固定,否则,这一距离留不出来。
习惯性身体的遮蔽作用
身体和心理能联系起来,原因在于:when reintegrated into existence, they are no longer distinguishable respectively as the order of the in-itself, and that of the for-itself, and that they are both directed towards an intentional pole or towards a world.
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人的历史性。什么是历史?历史作为一种 a prior, 其变与不变,如何存在。
历史如何参与现代?先天推理,尼古拉二世对路易十六的模仿/
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P88身心关系 psychological motives and……
Man,作为一种存在中的来往运动。
从作为客体和整体的身体=>在存在中来追问身体
分析刺激,反映,印象,心理、生理分开
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The experience of the body and classical psychology
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P90
身体与物体的根本区别:
1, 传统心理学:身体能被感知;身体能离开物体;
2, 身体留在所有知觉的边缘,它和我在一起。
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
# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:49 评论(0)


80-85页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
P80.81
两个例子:1.快失明的人意识不到视觉世界的关闭,到处乱碰
 2.未丧失视觉的病人迷了与世界的生命关系。→(何以可能?)
→有一种独立刺激一反应(生理学)1;也独立于。。。的“在世状态”:前客观状态实现心理与生理的连接。
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 生理解释: 表象的实际出现或消失;其总已存在。只在于出现或消失/
 客观解释
 心理解释: 实际出现或消失的表象;即不论其是否存在,总是已经出现或消失/ 记忆或遗忘
 ——与事实情况做对比,引出矛盾:
幻胳膊不属于“我想”的范畴,不属于客观范畴。而属于我在。无反思的思领域,幻胳膊,属于一种存在的矛盾表现。The ambivalent of an arm.
现象:依旧 在世存在。——> 故, 不管其不在或受伤的肢体,意欲令其在世完整.
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P82
To have a phantom…… the body is the vehicle of being in the world,但这里仍然是一种结构性说明,和时间性关系.要进一步,介入到内容,实质意义.
人们不感觉其结构,而是关注内容.也可以说,人们总是看到那个焦点,而意识不到边缘域.
身体与世界的关系: 身体是世界的意义枢纽.”人是天地间的一点灵明,没有人,高山谁来仰它高?深渊谁能俯它深?”阳明这段话正是这个意思.只不过,中国思想家重体悟性的表达,不重分析性的表达.
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两个身体层次:
 Habit-body =>天人合一的身体,源来身体 但不同
 The body at this moment => 已出问题的身体
天人合一,具有道德意义,中庸,一个正常人,完全可能不敬自己的身体,无规无矩,却并不丧失这种“习惯身体”的特性。实际上,这反映了两种文明的差别。
 1 真正的身体,仁义礼智必在其中,天人合一,先天的端正 正
儒
 2 气质身体 偏
 1 习惯身体 身与天不二 但无一个“中正”
M•P
 2当前身体 受损身体
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有极大差异。
此处M•P讲身-物,身-他人的问题:how can I perceived objects as manipulatable when I can no longer manipulate them? The manipulatable must have ceased to be a thing manipulatable for me and become a thing manitulatable in itself. Correspondingly, my body must be apprehended not only in an experience which is instantaneous, peculiar to itself and complete in itself, but also in some general aspect and in the light of an impersonal being.
共在问题
习惯身体是否先天的?(张祥龙有讨论)身体与道德的关系?
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P83 84
压抑现象 创伤性体验。一种不可能的未来。一种生活结构的形成。一个时刻代替所有时刻的“经验”。Until finally only the essential form remains.
身体自身的intention,前个人的时间流逝,总是要进行的。杀身成仁与苟活在世是一种后天的道德区分。本来就无善恶可言,身体本身只是依此存在=>真的没有道德的萌芽?
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从身体到灵魂的结合。从生物到文明的升华。Is made both possible and precarious by temporal structure of our experience.
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P85
 幻肢分析:1 it is not a recollection
 2 nor can we suppose that the image of an arm
 From…… a sensor: motor circuit is, with our comprehensive being in the world a relatively autonomous current of existence.
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时间性分析被引入,创伤性经验所构成的一种体验结构,使所有的时间体验都以与该创伤模式紧密结合起来,一切事情的意义都向改体验扭曲,宛如黑洞那样,吸收掉其他的绽放方式。我们现在能比过去自己更理解过去吗?然而,什么是“过去自己”?有这个IN-ITSELF吗?任何时刻的涌现,都是站在特定角度的涌现,对于此涌现的意义,我们无法穷尽,甚至无法确定。也许,问题的关键正是在这里,我们要从无穷的可能性中,寻找到一种可能性。现在,我在听贝多芬的第九交响曲,但我此刻更重要的事情是在思考M•P的《知觉现象学》中的一段话,或许,我之所以要进行这种思考,仅仅是为了填补我心中产生的内疚呢——因为我刚刚花了两个小时玩无聊的雷电游戏——这许多意义,谁更重要?怎么确定此刻的内容?我们真的能毫无差错的确定一个现在的涌现吗,就像确定一个数学等式那样?看来不行。任何涌现都将是模糊的。历史有无限的解释空间。而之所以有无限的解释空间,仅仅是因为历史自身就有无限的存在视角。什么叫历史本身?对地中海东岸、两河流域、印度的人们来说,亚历山大大帝的东征给他们带来了灾难,而对马其顿帝国,甚至对渴望报当年希波战争一箭之仇的部分希腊人来说,东征却更多的是一种荣耀;对在战争无辜死去的人而言,受折磨和蹂躏的被征服者来说,亚历山大是魔鬼,而对亚历山大自己来说,他是世界之王,是地上的神。更不用说东征使东西方文化相互影响,使历史发生了莫大的改变了(而这种改变的意义,又将是无法确定的。)
这说得太远了。但是,历史,无论是个人的,还是部落的,国家的,都有深刻相通的地方。个人的命运和一种文明的命运,它们的区别在哪里呢?
在中国,最经典的例子就是“塞翁失马,焉知祸福。”同一个事情,其好坏全依赖于将来发生的事情。但是,什么叫同一个事情?有脱离其意义的事情能吗?“某年某月某日某时某分,在某地,老翁的儿子骑马摔断了腿。”这是完整的对历史的叙述吗?什么叫历史?当时的风,茂盛生长的草,湛蓝的天空,这些不是历史吗?老翁儿子的痛苦,不是历史吗?他从马背上摔下的刹那所表现出来的惊慌不是历史吗?我们究竟记录了什么,又遗忘掉了什么呢?站在生死得失的角度上,我们谈论着“塞翁失马”这一事件。必须有站立的土地,然后我们才能谈论事情。必须有视角,世界才呈现出面貌。我们总是已经在视角中。总不得不在视角中。但我们往往忘记了这一点,把一定视角上的景象当作透视景象。上帝是全能的,而人不是。上帝是不是人在一定视角上的幻影和真理呢?这是另一个问题。
但是,我们可以得出结论:历史本身是游移不定的。不管对个人、部落、国家还是对某种文明而言。
——Even if we claim to have a better understanding of our past than it had of itself, it can always reject our present judgement and shut itself up in its own autonomous self-evidence. It necessarily does so in so far as I conceive it as a former present. Each present may claim to solidify our life, and in deed that is hat distinguishes it as the present. In so far as it presents itself as the totality of being…
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我们身体的匿名性无法与自由和奴役相分离。在世存在的摸棱两可由身体的摸棱两可来解释,而身体的摸棱两可则通过时间来理解。
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# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:48 评论(0)


70-78页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
P70
物体的实体性通过开放的界域 slip away, “现在”的意义是无穷的。过去,将来都如此。因其有无数的视角,无限的可能,这种无限,消解了任何一种实体性存在的可能,实体只是一种具体界域结构的执定和误认,一种抽象。绝对的物体,要求所有角度同时存在。我们所称的“同一性”,仅仅是“物体”一定厚度和密度的汇聚。
理想的密度,strict co-existence, 是不确定的。因为并没有什么标准,决定co-existence, 一切皆流,无物常驻。时间上无一点,空间上无一段,根底上是流变的。物体始终只在一种不定的限度内存在,假名而已。
一个供暖管,这似乎是一个物体了。但这仅是因为它在北大图书馆的一个屋子里。输送暖气的时候是,在一个需要热量的气温下是。但它也可以被看作一个搁东西的架子。它会破裂,最终废弃掉,融成铁水。它究竟是什么?在一定的时间,一定的位置,在一个界域里,它被从某个角度确定着,仅此而已。
物体的过、现、未变成了一种相互无关的共存。客观时间出现,客观世界呈现。
物体,‘object’如何确定其实体性,并反过来成为一切体验的解释之源?
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P71 72
在知觉世界里,我是所有的时间和时间,现在是一切时间的圆心。但在客观时间里,一切都平板化了。My present which is my point of view …….那么,身体呢?同样是一切空间的空间,现在却成了空间中的一部分。
 重新理解时空,因之而重新理解人、世界、生命、意义。通过身体的再认识。
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两个世界的划分:perceptual experience 的世界和 objective世界
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The body as object and mechanistic physiology
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P73 74
作为object的身体,与之相关的古典生理心理学。刺激反应学说,身体作为一个传导器的批判。现代生理心理学的成就,身体作为一个整体。某一部分的受损,整体受到影响。
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P75
知觉:身体的功能在于构成接受刺激的方式,它与外部客观世界的因果不同。
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The function of the organism is receiving stimuli is, so to speak, to ‘conceive’ a certain form of excitation. The excitation is seized and reorganized by transversal functions which make it resemble the perception which it is about to arouse.
如何理解知觉?通过身体,外感受需要让刺激成型。对身体的意识影响到身体本身。
P76
是否把身体看作“物”中之一,这关系到最根本问题。身体自身的意识是如何建立起来的?对body的理解:如果把身体理解为一种物体,由一种内通路而引起身体意识,那么,这种机械身体观将无法解释“幻肢”现象。
首先否认了生理学解释 P76 如何否认?
然后否认了心理学解释 P77
提出一种现象学解释: 身心统一体
“幻肢”是个人作为一种身心统一体对付世界,与世界打交道时的留存,它包含个人的情感意志力、经历。不单是一种机械的过程,也并不单是心理因素,身心合一,是最原本的现象。
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P77.78
超越于心理,生理解释而达于现象世界,身心合一,与世界的血脉联系,一只切断腿的昆虫,与熟悉的世界的关系。倘此虫先天断腿,却又如何?倘是人呢?即使不能全身有此世界一人一???却也可看出,可听见,先天性盲人,残腿、手,听觉者呢?第六感呢?打开一个新的时空。而使我们的全部存在都发生了变化,而必不只是仅仅加上一种感受……(Being in the world 在世存在)
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P79
意义优先。 Reflex ,psychological agents ,situation。在一个情境中,意义才能给予一个具体的刺激,一个行动,一个局部,在一个情境中,刺激引出知识意义上的认识,这恰和以德主智有相似,良知“坎陷”为知识论。只不过,牟宗三的儒家认识里,情境是天命之境,率性之境,是一个天地万物一体的仁境,在此境中,已知受激而生出求知意向,??技术由此出。 对“反射”的理解, 一种“不由自主”的活动,血脉贯通之处(方式)

# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:48 评论(0)


67-70页

2004-9-17 星期五(Friday) 晴
PART ONE
The body
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Experience and objective thought. The problem of the body
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P67
Our perception ends in objects, and the object once constituted, appears as the reason for all the experiences of it which we have had or could have.
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We must try to understand how vision can be brought into being from somewhere without being enclosed in its perspective.
我们的视觉“看”,听觉“听”,但我们看到了颜色,看到了形状,却如何看到质料?看到即是一个“屋”?知觉是如何发生的?知觉中是否有判断?整体知觉在单个知觉之前?我们是否先有了整体经验,再才能知觉出单独的、分离的东西?譬如,先有了生活,先在着,才能逐渐分离出更小的领域:吃,穿,住,行,用。先有了颜色,才能分出黑白,然后才有彩色?
To see an object is either to have it on the fringe of the visual field and be able to concentrate on it, or else respond to this summons by actually concentrating it.
要确定一物A,若天地间什么其它也无,便只能据天地来确定。若要确定地,便必有天。要确定春,便必有夏秋冬这个系列(无论是分为2、3还是4季)。即,无物可独存。所谓“东方有佳人,绝世而独立”必须有一个“世”她方能“绝”。世界在“隐士”这个名字中已经存在。一个object,必有一背景,一text,可一是它的正对,也可以是它的反对,泛对,总之,必须有对。对越细,把握越精。
没有horizon, 差异势态,我们不可能认识和理解object,即,它不能呈现。而这种差异势态的根源之所以能呈现的原因,就是我们身心一如的生存。存在是比生存更根本的一个词,因为生存已经是在一个可说的“形而下”的层面上,在说生活中的“什么”了。
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P68 69
Object 的identity 以及其被感知的各个面。各种被感知物的相互关系。一物自身不能作为持存的证明。所有其它证人都是如此。那么,不变的仅仅是一种相互关系。“物是人非,人是物非。”
The horizon, then, is what guarantees the identity of the object throughout the exploration; it is the correlative of the impending power which my gaze retains over the objects which it has just surveyed, and which it already has over the fresh details which it is about to discover.
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The object-horizon structure, or the perspective, is no obstacle to me when I want to see the object: for just as it is the means whereby objects are distinguished from each other, it is also the means whereby they are disclosed. To see is to enter a universe of beings which display themselves, and they would not do this if they could not be hidden behind each other or behind me. In other word, to look at an objects is to inhabit it, and from this habitation to grasp all things in terms of the aspect which they present to it. But in so far as I see those things too, they remain abodes open to my gaze, and, being potentially lodged in them, I already perceive from various angles the central object of my present vision. Thus every object is the mirror of all others. When I look at the lamp on my table, I attribute to it not only the qualities visible from where I am, but also those which the chimney, the walls, the table can ‘see’; but back of my lamp is nothing but the face which it ‘shown’ to the lamp. I can therefore see an object in so far as objects form a system or a world, and in so far as each one treats the others round it as spectators of its hidden aspects and as guarantee of the permanence of those aspects. Any seeing of an object by me is instantaneously reiterated among all those objects in the world which are apprehended as co-existent, because each of them is all that the other ‘see’ of it. Our previous formula must therefore be modified: the house itself is not the house seen from no where, but the house seen from everywhere. The completed object is translucent, being shot through from all sides by an infinite number of present scrutinies which intersect in its depths leaving nothing hidden.
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这是一段非常重要的话。说明了共存着的事物是如何相互支撑,从一个角度,同时也是从所有角度向我们呈现的。看到一本书,意味着看到笔,桌子,电脑,书的主人,因为一个物体能作为书呈现出来,必然是已经在一个意义世界系统之中。它们隐藏在书的后面,作为视域和背景。看到一个意义世界,而不是执着于物,不为物役,就是要能看到物之所起,看到物之所以为物的那个生生不息的道的世界。进于道,而不是止于有形之物,这正是庖丁解牛的寓言所要告诉我们的道理。这里的‘see’,已经不仅仅是“以目视”,而是“以神遇”,这个神,就是现象学的看。在本书中,作者从身体角度,从物的角度领会道。是非常了不起的。还必须要提出的一个问题是:“以神遇”中的“神”在这里怎么解释?身体,心,神,这些究竟在说什么?王阳明说,这都是一回事,从同角度和层面来说而已。但真正要切身理解这“一回事”,还得仔细琢磨。
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屋前草,屋后树,屋旁边的池塘,此是从整个屋来说,然而还有屋内。这一切角度,不都与人相关?完全的物体是半透明的,它能在所有角度被当前的目光穿过。
空间透视的分析也适用于时间透视,后者与历史有关。与意义的再次评定有关。说明历史也不是恒定的。物随境迁,时间空间都是如此。
Each present permanently underpins a point of time which calls for recognition from all the others, so that the object is seen at all times as it is seen from all directions and by the same means, namely the structure imposed by a horizon.
现在,过去的将来,将来的过去,客观时间的诞生,反过来宰制人的原本生活。任何一点,都可以从其它点上认出其意义,证明其存在,从来没有一个孤独的自己点。
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# posted by daiwangwang @ 2004-09-17 15:47 评论(0)


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