stupid dog leads clever sheep flock, such a world
作者：laiyinhate_xie 提交日期：2008-6-6 10:17:00 | 分类:E文 | 访问量：1384
May 22nd 2008
From The Economist print edition
Irena Sendler, saviour of children in the Warsaw ghetto, died on May 12th, aged 98
Irena Sendler伊雷娜·森德勒, 华沙犹太区中孩子们的救世主，死于5月12日，享年98岁
POLAND suffered more than any other European country during the second world war. And there was an
extra twist: the history of that suffering was then systematically distorted by the Soviet-imposed
Communist rulers, and widely misunderstood abroad. Auschwitz, for example, is still often referred to as
a “Polish death camp”—rather than one run by the country's Nazi occupiers, in which huge numbers of
Polish citizens perished. And gentile Poles are typically imagined to have rejoiced, collaborated or simply
stood by as their Jewish compatriots were exterminated. Poles, said the former Israeli leader Yitzhak
Shamir, “imbibe anti-Semitism with their mother's milk.”
在二次世界大战期间，波兰遭受的苦难比其他任何欧洲国家都多。而且接着还有另外一个变故：这段苦难的历史被当时苏联强加的共产主义统治者给有预谋地歪曲了，并且被国外很多国家所误解。例如，Auschwitz（奥斯威辛）现在还经常被认为是波兰人开的死亡集中营，而不是这个国家的侵略者---纳粹运作的。在这个集中营里，大量的波兰市民丧生。而当犹太波兰人被种族灭绝时，非犹太教的波兰人经常被想象成幸灾乐祸，认敌为友或者袖手旁观的人。 波兰人，前以色列领导伊扎克·沙米尔(Yitzhak Shamir)说，“他们母亲的乳汁里都浸满了反犹太人的东西”。
Certainly prejudice was prevalent in pre-war Poland; but many Poles defied it. One of the bravest was
Irena Sendler. As a doctor's daughter, she had been brought up in a house that was open to anyone in
pain or need, Jew or gentile. In the segregated lecture halls at Warsaw University, where she studied
Polish literature, she and likeminded friends deliberately sat on the “Jewish” benches. When nationalist
thugs beat up a Jewish friend, she defaced her grade card, crossing out the stamp that allowed her to sit
on the “Aryan” seats. For that, the university suspended her for three years. All this was good
preparation for the defiance she was to show after 1939, when the Germans invaded.
She was, a friend said, “born to selflessness, not called to it”. Certainly she had good genes. A rebellious
great-grandfather was deported to Siberia. Her father died of typhus in 1917, after treating patients his
colleagues shunned. Many were Jewish. Leaders of the Jewish community offered money to her hard-up
mother for young Irena's education. Like many social workers in pre-war Poland, Mrs Sendler belonged to
the Socialist party: not for its political ideology, she said, but because it combined compassion with
dislike of money-worship. No religion motivated her: she acted z potrzeby serca, “from the need of my
伊雷娜·森德勒的一个朋友说，“她不是被感召的，而是天生就是一个无私的人”。她当然有好的遗传。她的曾祖父被驱逐到了西伯利亚。1917年她的父亲在别的同事都避之不及时，仍然救治病人，最终死于伤寒。这些病人中，很多都是犹太人。犹太社区的领导们经济上援助伊雷娜·森德勒的妈妈，供年轻的森德勒读书。像战前波兰的许多工人一样，森德勒夫人属于社会主义党：不是因为政治意识形态，她说，而是因为这个党把同情和对金钱至上的厌恶结合在了一块。没有宗教驱使过她：she acted z potrzeby serca她是”因为内心的需要“而行动。
Under Nazi occupation the Jews of Warsaw were herded into the city ghetto: four square kilometres for
around 400,000 souls. Even before the deportations to the Treblinka death camp started, death could be
arbitrary and instant. Yet a paradox created a sliver of hope. Squalor and near-starvation (the monthly
bread ration was two kilos, or 4.5lb) created ideal conditions for typhus, which would have killed
Germans too. So the Nazis allowed Mrs Sendler and her colleagues in and out of the tightly guarded
ghetto to distribute medicines and vaccinations.
That bureaucratic loophole allowed her to save more Jews than the far better known Oscar Schindler. It
was astonishingly risky. Some children could be smuggled out in lorries, or in trams supposedly returning
empty to the depot. More often they went by secret passageways from buildings on the outskirts of the
ghetto. To save one Jew, she reckoned, required 12 outsiders working in total secrecy: drivers for the
vehicles; priests to issue false baptism certificates; bureaucrats to provide ration cards; and most of all,
families or religious orders to care for them. The penalty for helping Jews was instant execution.
Names in glass jars
To make matters even riskier, Mrs Sendler insisted on recording the children's details to help them trace
their families later. These were written on pieces of tissue paper bundled on her bedside table; the plan
was to hurl them out of the window if the Gestapo called. The Nazis did catch her (thinking she was a
small cog, not the linchpin of the rescue scheme) but did not find the files, secreted in a friend's armpit.
Under torture she revealed nothing. Thanks to a well-placed bribe, she escaped execution; the children's
files were buried in glass jars. Mrs Sendler spent the rest of the war under an assumed name.
Sendler小姐坚持记录下孩子们的情况来帮助他们以后找到他们的家人，这使得事情更加冒险。这些都被写在几张手纸上，然后扎在一起放在她床边的桌子上；假如盖世太保传唤，他们计划就把这些纸扔出窗外。 纳粹确实抓到过她（认为她只是个小鱼，不是拯救计划的主谋），但没有发现那些藏在一个朋友腋窝里的档案。 在严刑拷打下，她没有透露任何事情。 多亏了处置得当的贿赂，她没有被处死；孩子们的档案被埋在玻璃罐里。 之后，森德勒夫人在战争期间都一直用的是假名。
The idea of a heroine's treatment appalled her. “I feel guilty to this day that I didn't do more,” she said.
Besides, she felt she had been a bad daughter, risking her elderly mother's life with her wartime work, a
bad wife to both her husbands, and a neglectful mother. Her daughter once asked to be admitted to the
children's home where her mother worked after the war, in order to see more of her.
Mrs Sendler need not have worried. Far from being honoured, she narrowly avoided a death sentence
from the Communist authorities. Her crime was that her work had been authorised and financed by the
Polish government-in-exile in London; later, she helped soldiers of the Home Army, the wartime
resistance. Both outfits were now reviled as imperialist stooges. In 1948 repeated interrogations by the
secret police in late pregnancy cost the life of her second child, born prematurely. She was not allowed to
travel, and her children could not study full-time at university. “What sins have you got on your
conscience, Mama?” her daughter asked her.
森德勒夫人没有必要烦恼那些事情。她非但没有被给与荣誉，而且差点被共产主义政府判处死刑。她的罪名是，她的工作（战时）是被伦敦波兰流亡政府所授权和资助的；后来她还帮助了国民军（the Home Army）---战争期间的抵抗组织。这两样被诽谤为帝国主义的帮凶。1948年，在怀孕晚期，她不停地被秘密警察的审问使得她失去了第二个孩子，因为早产。她不允许旅行，她的孩子也不能在大学全日制学习。”为了你的良心，你造了什么孽啊？“她的女儿问她。
It was not until 1983 that the Polish authorities allowed her to travel to Jerusalem, where a tree was
planted in her honour at Yad Vashem. Many of the children she had saved sought her out: now elderly
themselves, all grateful, but some still yearning for details of their forgotten parents. In 2003 she
received Poland's highest honour, the order of the White Eagle. It came a little late.