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stupid dog leads clever sheep flock, such a world
Irena Sendler伊雷娜·森德勒----华沙犹太区中孩子们
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作者:laiyinhate_xie 提交日期:2008-6-6 10:17:00 | 分类:E文 | 访问量:1368

Irena Sendler伊雷娜·森德勒----华沙犹太区中孩子们的救世主
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Irena Sendler伊雷娜·森德勒
May 22nd 2008
From The Economist print edition
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Irena Sendler, saviour of children in the Warsaw ghetto, died on May 12th, aged 98
Irena Sendler伊雷娜·森德勒, 华沙犹太区中孩子们的救世主,死于5月12日,享年98岁
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POLAND suffered more than any other European country during the second world war. And there was an
extra twist: the history of that suffering was then systematically distorted by the Soviet-imposed
Communist rulers, and widely misunderstood abroad. Auschwitz, for example, is still often referred to as
a “Polish death camp”—rather than one run by the country's Nazi occupiers, in which huge numbers of
Polish citizens perished. And gentile Poles are typically imagined to have rejoiced, collaborated or simply
stood by as their Jewish compatriots were exterminated. Poles, said the former Israeli leader Yitzhak
Shamir, “imbibe anti-Semitism with their mother's milk.”
在二次世界大战期间,波兰遭受的苦难比其他任何欧洲国家都多。而且接着还有另外一个变故:这段苦难的历史被当时苏联强加的共产主义统治者给有预谋地歪曲了,并且被国外很多国家所误解。例如,Auschwitz(奥斯威辛)现在还经常被认为是波兰人开的死亡集中营,而不是这个国家的侵略者---纳粹运作的。在这个集中营里,大量的波兰市民丧生。而当犹太波兰人被种族灭绝时,非犹太教的波兰人经常被想象成幸灾乐祸,认敌为友或者袖手旁观的人。 波兰人,前以色列领导伊扎克·沙米尔(Yitzhak Shamir)说,“他们母亲的乳汁里都浸满了反犹太人的东西”。
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Certainly prejudice was prevalent in pre-war Poland; but many Poles defied it. One of the bravest was
Irena Sendler. As a doctor's daughter, she had been brought up in a house that was open to anyone in
pain or need, Jew or gentile. In the segregated lecture halls at Warsaw University, where she studied
Polish literature, she and likeminded friends deliberately sat on the “Jewish” benches. When nationalist
thugs beat up a Jewish friend, she defaced her grade card, crossing out the stamp that allowed her to sit
on the “Aryan” seats. For that, the university suspended her for three years. All this was good
preparation for the defiance she was to show after 1939, when the Germans invaded.
当然,在战前的波兰,歧视是普遍存在的; 但很多波兰人都反对它。这些勇士之一就有伊雷娜·森德勒。作为一位医生的女儿,她的家经常需要接待有病痛的或者需要帮助的人,包括犹太人或者非犹太人。在华沙大学的种族歧视的课堂里,她学习波兰文学,并且和她的志同道合的朋友们经常故意地坐在犹太人的长凳上。当种族主义暴徒毒打一位犹太朋友的时候,她涂污了自己的年级卡,划掉能够让她坐在“雅利安人“凳子上的图印。因为这个,学校让她休学了三年。所有的这些都为她在1939年后的英勇反抗做好了准备。当时正是德国入侵。
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She was, a friend said, “born to selflessness, not called to it”. Certainly she had good genes. A rebellious
great-grandfather was deported to Siberia. Her father died of typhus in 1917, after treating patients his
colleagues shunned. Many were Jewish. Leaders of the Jewish community offered money to her hard-up
mother for young Irena's education. Like many social workers in pre-war Poland, Mrs Sendler belonged to
the Socialist party: not for its political ideology, she said, but because it combined compassion with
dislike of money-worship. No religion motivated her: she acted z potrzeby serca, “from the need of my
heart”.
伊雷娜·森德勒的一个朋友说,“她不是被感召的,而是天生就是一个无私的人”。她当然有好的遗传。她的曾祖父被驱逐到了西伯利亚。1917年她的父亲在别的同事都避之不及时,仍然救治病人,最终死于伤寒。这些病人中,很多都是犹太人。犹太社区的领导们经济上援助伊雷娜·森德勒的妈妈,供年轻的森德勒读书。像战前波兰的许多工人一样,森德勒夫人属于社会主义党:不是因为政治意识形态,她说,而是因为这个党把同情和对金钱至上的厌恶结合在了一块。没有宗教驱使过她:she acted z potrzeby serca她是”因为内心的需要“而行动。

Under Nazi occupation the Jews of Warsaw were herded into the city ghetto: four square kilometres for
around 400,000 souls. Even before the deportations to the Treblinka death camp started, death could be
arbitrary and instant. Yet a paradox created a sliver of hope. Squalor and near-starvation (the monthly
bread ration was two kilos, or 4.5lb) created ideal conditions for typhus, which would have killed
Germans too. So the Nazis allowed Mrs Sendler and her colleagues in and out of the tightly guarded
ghetto to distribute medicines and vaccinations.
在纳粹的占领下,华沙的犹太人被成群的驱赶到了城市的犹太区里:40万人待在一个4平方公里的地方。甚至在被移送到特雷布林卡(Treblinka)死亡集中营之前,死亡都可能随时发生。然而一件非常令人头痛的事情却创造了希望之光。肮脏和饥饿(每月面包的配给是两公斤)为伤寒制造了理想的条件。这种病症同样会感染德国人。所以纳粹让森德勒小姐和她的同事们进出严密防守的犹太区,为了分发药品和接种育苗。

That bureaucratic loophole allowed her to save more Jews than the far better known Oscar Schindler. It
was astonishingly risky. Some children could be smuggled out in lorries, or in trams supposedly returning
empty to the depot. More often they went by secret passageways from buildings on the outskirts of the
ghetto. To save one Jew, she reckoned, required 12 outsiders working in total secrecy: drivers for the
vehicles; priests to issue false baptism certificates; bureaucrats to provide ration cards; and most of all,
families or religious orders to care for them. The penalty for helping Jews was instant execution.
比起广为人知的奥斯卡人物---辛德勒,官僚的小小失误让Sendler能够拯救更多的犹太人。这些都要冒着惊人的风险。一些孩子在货车或者电车放空返回库房时,被偷偷运出去。 经常他们需要从犹太区外围建筑的过道里经过。为了拯救一位犹太人,她计算道,需要12人隐蔽在外面:司机开车;牧师开具假的洗礼证明;官僚提供配给卡;这些人大多数是照顾孩子们的家庭或者修会。对于帮助犹太人的惩罚是立即处死。
Names in glass jars
玻璃罐里的名字

To make matters even riskier, Mrs Sendler insisted on recording the children's details to help them trace
their families later. These were written on pieces of tissue paper bundled on her bedside table; the plan
was to hurl them out of the window if the Gestapo called. The Nazis did catch her (thinking she was a
small cog, not the linchpin of the rescue scheme) but did not find the files, secreted in a friend's armpit.
Under torture she revealed nothing. Thanks to a well-placed bribe, she escaped execution; the children's
files were buried in glass jars. Mrs Sendler spent the rest of the war under an assumed name.
Sendler小姐坚持记录下孩子们的情况来帮助他们以后找到他们的家人,这使得事情更加冒险。这些都被写在几张手纸上,然后扎在一起放在她床边的桌子上;假如盖世太保传唤,他们计划就把这些纸扔出窗外。 纳粹确实抓到过她(认为她只是个小鱼,不是拯救计划的主谋),但没有发现那些藏在一个朋友腋窝里的档案。 在严刑拷打下,她没有透露任何事情。 多亏了处置得当的贿赂,她没有被处死;孩子们的档案被埋在玻璃罐里。 之后,森德勒夫人在战争期间都一直用的是假名。

The idea of a heroine's treatment appalled her. “I feel guilty to this day that I didn't do more,” she said.
Besides, she felt she had been a bad daughter, risking her elderly mother's life with her wartime work, a
bad wife to both her husbands, and a neglectful mother. Her daughter once asked to be admitted to the
children's home where her mother worked after the war, in order to see more of her.
一个女英雄待遇的想法令她很害怕。”直至今日,我都觉得有愧,没能再多作一点。“她说。除此之外,她觉得她一直是一个不称职的女儿---她的战时的工作会她年迈的母亲受牵连,一个不称职的妻子---对于她的两个丈夫,和一个粗心的母亲。她的女儿曾要求被允许去儿童之家(她战后在那工作)为了多看看她。

Mrs Sendler need not have worried. Far from being honoured, she narrowly avoided a death sentence
from the Communist authorities. Her crime was that her work had been authorised and financed by the
Polish government-in-exile in London; later, she helped soldiers of the Home Army, the wartime
resistance. Both outfits were now reviled as imperialist stooges. In 1948 repeated interrogations by the
secret police in late pregnancy cost the life of her second child, born prematurely. She was not allowed to
travel, and her children could not study full-time at university. “What sins have you got on your
conscience, Mama?” her daughter asked her.
森德勒夫人没有必要烦恼那些事情。她非但没有被给与荣誉,而且差点被共产主义政府判处死刑。她的罪名是,她的工作(战时)是被伦敦波兰流亡政府所授权和资助的;后来她还帮助了国民军(the Home Army)---战争期间的抵抗组织。这两样被诽谤为帝国主义的帮凶。1948年,在怀孕晚期,她不停地被秘密警察的审问使得她失去了第二个孩子,因为早产。她不允许旅行,她的孩子也不能在大学全日制学习。”为了你的良心,你造了什么孽啊?“她的女儿问她。
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It was not until 1983 that the Polish authorities allowed her to travel to Jerusalem, where a tree was
planted in her honour at Yad Vashem. Many of the children she had saved sought her out: now elderly
themselves, all grateful, but some still yearning for details of their forgotten parents. In 2003 she
received Poland's highest honour, the order of the White Eagle. It came a little late.
直到1983年,波兰政府允许她去耶路撒冷旅行。在那儿,为了表示对她的尊敬,一棵树被栽在以色列大屠杀纪念馆(Yad Vashem)里。她拯救的许多孩子都在寻找她:现在都长大了,心怀感激,但一些人仍然可望知道他们被遗忘的父母的信息。2003年,森德勒获得了波兰的最高荣誉,白鹰勋章。来得真有点晚阿!!!
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#日志日期:2008-6-6 星期五(Friday) 晴 送小红花 推荐指数:复制链接 举报



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