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Land reform in China 农村土地流转第一拍
作者:crosseveryriver 提交日期:2009-1-15 17:51:00 正常 | 分类: | 访问量:1133

Land reform in China
中国土地改革
Users and losers
土地使用者和受损者
Jan 8th 2009 | TAWA VILLAGE
From The Economist print edition
Less a path-breaking land reform than a public-relations stunt
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ROUGHLY 30 years ago (the exact date is disputed), a group of farmers in the eastern province of Anhui secretly decided to parcel out their village land to individual households. The event became celebrated as the beginning of the end of the rural “people’s communes” disastrously promoted by Mao Zedong. Now a group of villagers in Beijing’s outskirts is hoping to gain similar fame.
约在30年前(具体日期是有争议),安徽省东部的一群农民秘密的决定把他们村的土地小部分到每一户。最开始这件事情被认为是毛泽东提出的灾难性的农村“人民公社”的解体。现在北京的郊区的一些村名正希望作出同样有名的事情。
In late October they erected a billboard in Tawa village, 90km (56 miles) north-east of the city centre, overlooking a parking lot in front of a cluster of single-storey buildings. Here they had been trying to create a weekend idyll for the urban middle classes. In vain: their efforts to make it look a bit like a commune, with Maoist slogans and open-air dining hall, may have overestimated nostalgia for the bad old days.
在10月底,这些村名在离北京东北部90千米,即56华理的塔洼村竖起了一块布告牌,这块广告牌俯视着一排排单独楼层前面的停车场。在这里他们准备给城市的中等阶层提供周末田园生活。但是这些做法没有任何效果:他们努力将这里做的看起来像毛泽东时候的公社,大锅饭。但是他们的这些的努力可能高估了人们对以前艰难岁月的怀念。
The new billboard proclaimed that China’s first auction of rural land was going to take place in Tawa. Not just the buildings were on offer, but also a vast expanse of land behind them stretching up to the picturesque peaks of a mountain range—in all some 670 hectares (1,650 acres). The billboard showed Communist Party leaders raising their hands at a plenary meeting of the Central Committee that month. “Peasants thank the party centre,” said the accompanying slogan. The thanks were for a vague resolution that optimists believed signalled a softening of the party’s stance on trading rural land and housing, which are subject to far stricter controls than those that cover urban property.
这块新的广告牌上宣布中国农村土地的第一块拍卖地将是塔洼。要拍卖的不仅仅是这些房屋,还有他们后面广阔的土地,这些土地一直延伸到一座大山上的风景如画的山峰。总共有670公顷,即1650英亩的地方。在这块广告牌上面,有10月中共中央委员会全会上面党领导举手的画面。伴随的口号就是“感谢党中央”。乐观主义者相信党对买卖农村土地和房屋的立场变软,他们认为会将严格的控制变为包括农村产权。而这些感谢就是为了这次不明确的决定。【这感谢的是中央关于" 土地流转"的决议--乐观者认为,该决议标志着国家在农村土地和住宅买卖(与城市相比,对农村房产交易的控制要严格得多)方面的姿态正在软化。】
Unlike the furtive break-up of the communes 30 years ago, Tawa’s land-auction plans were splashed over newspapers in Beijing. The auction house posted large advertisements on a couple of Beijing buses, showing the thumbprints of the 18 village representatives who had approved the sale, recalling the celebrated thumbprints of the commune-dismantling Anhui villagers. They advertised an auction due to take place on December 28th.
与30年前偷偷摸摸打破人民公社不一样,塔洼的土地拍卖计划刊登在北京的报纸上面。拍卖者将大的广告张贴在北京的公交上面,这些广告上显示了18名村代表同意出售的指纹,同时也让人回忆起那次著名安徽村名将人民公社解体的指纹。这些村名广告说这次的拍卖将会在12月28日进行。
In fact, it was delayed. Local officials pointed out a couple of problems. For one thing, there was far less land available for auction than advertised—some of it is forestry which cannot be transferred. For another, as in cities, ownership cannot be traded, only “land-use” rights, and the present users do not have all the papers they need to prove their rights. The necessary documents could take more than a month to process. Officials ordered the billboard to be taken down, citing opposition to the use of leaders’ faces in advertising.
实际上,拍卖推迟了。当地政府指出了很多问题。首先就是,拍卖的土地远远少于广告上所说的,广告上的一部分林地是不能转让的。其次,正如在城市一样,所有权是不能买卖的,只有“土地使用权”才能。而现在的农民使用者没有所有能保障他们利益的文件。而所必要的文件将需要一个月以上才能拿到。政府下令拿掉这个引用了领导面孔的广告牌,
No specific objections have been raised to the idea of an auction. But contrary to the villagers’ advertising, it is hardly path-breaking. Peasants have been legally trading land-use rights for years. Moreover, for “wasteland”, like swathes of Tawa’s mountain slopes, auctions are common. So peasants have been grumbling less about restrictions on how they sell their rights, than about the shortness of leases and the “collective” ownership principle covering rural land. Local officials often claim to represent the collective and take big cuts from any deals, leaving little to the land users. Mortgaging rural land or even selling one’s own house to non-villagers is banned.
对于这次拍卖,没有引起特别的反对意见。但是,和村民们的广告相反,这几乎不可能达到开创性作用。多年以来,农民买卖土地使用权就是合法的。而且,对于“荒地”,正如塔洼山坡上的土地,拍卖很常见。因此,农民很少抱怨他们买卖使用权的限制措施,他们抱怨的是农村土地的租金和“集体所有”权的缺点。当地政府经常说土地是公有的,并以此从买卖中获利,只剩很少的一部分租金留给这些土地使用者。抵押农村土地,甚至买卖房屋给非农村户口是禁止的。
Even if Tawa does hold its auction, it will do little to change perceptions about how problematic rural land reform is proving, and how little the party is really doing to tackle it, for all the Central Committee’s encouraging words. The prime mover behind Tawa’s auction is a village party secretary, Zhang Yuwang, who happens to own, he claims, the usage rights to most of the land in question. Mr Zhang lives in another village a long distance away. Several years ago, in return for taking in some of Tawa’s peasants relocated as part of a poverty-alleviation scheme, it was given rights to the mountainous estate.
即使塔洼举行了拍卖,和很难改变农村土地如何改革有多困难的观念以及党实际上没有要解决这个困难的观念,从中央委员会激励的话语就可以看出来。塔洼拍卖的发起人村党委书记张玉旺。他说我们谈论的大部分的土地所有权是属于自己的。张住在离这很远的另外一个村。几年前,为了考虑塔洼农民。。。。, 将身上土地。。。。
So Tawa’s revolutionary reform turns out to be little more than a typical story of a rural official trying to make money from land. Mr Zhang refused to talk to your correspondent and yelled at him for trying to interview a villager on the street. Mr Zhang’s skill has been to persuade some of Beijing’s newspapers (though scepticism has since crept in) that he is a reformist pioneer. Zhao Xiaokai, an adviser to the auction house, still insists that China is embarking on a “land revolution that will help the global economy” by unlocking peasant spending power. He also points out, more prosaically, that all the media attention can only help his business.
因此,塔洼的革命性改革更能说是一个典型的村官试图从土地上拿钱的故事。张拒绝了记者的采访,并当吼叫在街道上试图采访的记者。张用他的能力劝说了北京的某些记者认为了他是改革先锋者。这次拍卖房屋的广告商赵晓凯仍然坚持说中国正着手通过解开农民购买力的“一项将帮助全球经济的土地改革”。他还更书面的指出,所有媒体的注意力才能帮助这次拍卖。
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【大约30年前,安徽的一群农民秘密决定分田到户,这成为农村"人民公社"结束的开端。如今北京市郊的一群村民也希望获得类似名声。2008年10月 底,他们在北京东北大约90公里处的塔洼村竖起广告牌。在那里,他们试图营造一种田园牧歌环境,希望成为城市中产阶级的周末度假去处。他们把它做得像一个 公社,有着毛泽东主义时代的和露天饭堂。不过,他们可能高估人们对往昔艰苦日子的怀念了。
这块新广告牌宣布塔洼村进行中国农村土地的第一次 拍卖。拍卖的不仅是那里的建筑,还有一直延绵到风景如画山峰的大片土地--总共约670公顷。广告牌上的标语说"农民感谢党中央",这感谢的是中央关于" 土地流转"的决议--乐观者认为,该决议标志着国家在农村土地和住宅买卖(与城市相比,对农村房产交易的控制要严格得多)方面的姿态正在软化。
与30年前打破公社行动的偷偷摸摸不同,塔洼村的土地拍卖计划登上了北京报纸的显著位置。拍卖行在一些北京公交车上做大型广告,显示18位赞同出售的村代表的手指印,这无疑令人想起安徽村民打破公社时按下的手印。他们宣布拍卖在2008年12月28日举行。
事 实上,它被推迟了。当地官员指出了一些问题:首先,可拍卖的土地远少于广告上所说的--一些林地不能被转让;另外,和城市情况一样,土地所有权不能被买 卖,交易的只是"土地使用权",而且目前的使用者并没有齐全的文件证明他们的权利。要取得必须的文件需要超过一个多月时间,当地官员下令拿掉广告牌。
和广告宣称的不同,这难以称得上是一件"开创性事件",农民合法交易土地使用权多年前就有。此外,"荒地"(例如塔洼村的山坡)的拍卖也很常见。一些地方官员自称代表集体,从交易中捞取油水,而土地使用者实际所得甚少。
即使塔洼村举行了拍卖,这也无助于改变人们的看法:这场农村土地改革充满了疑问。塔洼村拍卖背后的主要推动者是一位姓张的村支书,他宣称自己刚好拥有那片土地的大部分使用权。
但与这场拍卖相关的拍卖行顾问赵晓凯(音译)仍坚称,中国正开始一场"将有助于全球经济的土地革命",解放农民购买力。他还指出,媒体的关注会有助于他的业务。】
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#日志日期:2009-1-15 星期四(Thursday) 晴 复制链接 举报



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